What is insulin diabetes

Disturbance Insulin hormone

1-Hypersecretion( Hypoglycemia ):-

Cause :
– Overdose of insulin in diabetes
– Insulinoma (tumor of the pancreas)
– Kidney failure

Symptoms:– Palpitation, sweating, nervousness, hanger, and confusion.
– At very low plasma glucose level: coma and convulsion Death.

2- Hyposecretion (hyperglycemia)
Diabetes Mellitus

Cause :
– Pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin
or cells don’t respond to the insulin that
is produced.

Symptoms:
– Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia.

Types :
Type I-  Insulin-dependent DM
Type II- Non–insulin-dependent DM

TYPE1 (INSULIN DEFICIENCY)   

Risk factors:
1- genetics
2- dietary factor
– Low vit.D consumption.
– Early exposure to cow’s milk (before 4 months)
3- Race
– More common in white

Type2 insulin resistance

Mainly decrease tissue sensitivity to insulin (usually after 40 years)

Risk factors :
– Overweight
– Inactivity
– Age
– Gestational diabetes
– Polycystic ovary syndrome
– High blood pressure
– Abnormal cholesterol level

 

GESTATIONAL DIABETES

– lifestyle modification.
Type I: insulin therapy
Type II: oral anti-diabetic & some ppl need insulin gestational: Insulin therapy only.

 

Patient counseling:-

1. Eat healthily.
 No foods are strictly off-limits.
 Get plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains
 Choose nonfat dairy.
 Limit foods that are high in sugar and fat.
 Remember that carbohydrates turn into sugar, so watch your carb. intake.

2. Exercise.
Just walk, ride a bike, or play active video games.
30 minutes of activity that makes you sweat and breath a little harder
An active lifestyle helps you control your diabetes by bringing down your blood sugar.
It also lowers your chances of getting heart disease.

 

3. Get checkups.
 See your doctor at least twice a year.
 Diabetes raises your odds of heart disease.
 So learn your numbers: cholesterol, blood pressure, and A1C (average blood sugar over 3 months).
 Get a full eye exam every year.
 Visit a foot doctor to check for foot ulcers and nerve damage problems.

Random blood glucose
 Fasting blood glucose and postprandial
 Hb A1C
 Cholesterol & Triglycerides
 Kidney Function Test

4. Manage stress.
 When you’re stressed, your blood sugar levels go up.
 And when you’re anxious, you may not manage your diabetes well.
5- wear weight socks
6- follow up on your vaginal infection
Basal insulin and bolus insulin:

Insulin preparation:

A- short-acting insulins BOLUS only not basal ( half an hour before meals )
Only one type can be used in an emergency (water-soluble)

C- intermediate-acting insulin ( Natural
protamine Hagedrn NPH )
* Protamine + zinc insulin = susp. ( cloudy milky )
Onset : 1 – 2 hr
Duration : 14 – 24 hr
– Basal
short acting ( bolus )
+ NPH ( basal ) = premixed

D- premixed insulin
– Humulin 70/30 : 70% NPH + 30 % Regular
– Mixtard 50/50 : 50 % NPH + 50 % Regular
– Humalog mix 75/25 : 75% protamine lispro
+ 25 % lispro.

E- Long-acting insulin ( basal insulin )
Onset: 1 – 1.5 hr
Duration: 24 hr
Once-daily

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here