Vaccines and anti-sepa

Active immunization:-

 It is the administration of antigen to the host in order to
induce antibody production.
 Vaccines are used for active immunization.
 Vaccines are suspensions of micro-organisms (dead or
live attenuated) which stimulate the immunological
defence of the host by developing antibodies.
 They impart active immunity, which takes sometime to
develop & thus used prophylactically – the antibodies
so developed destroy the specific micro-organism when
it enters the body.

LIVE ATTENUATED – BCG, Typhoid, Polio, MMR
KILLED
(INACTIVATED) – Rabies, Cholera,
Hepatitis A,B. Pertussis.

 

Toxoids:-

 Bacterial exo-toxins modified to remove toxicity but
retain antigenicity are toxoids.
 E.g. – Tetanus & Diphtheria.

Passive immunization:-

 

 It is imparting immunity to a host passively by the transfer
of antibodies. E.g. – Antisera & immunoglobulins (Ig)
 This affords immediate protection as readymade antibodies
are available.
 Antisera like tetanus antitoxin, gas gangrene antitoxin,
diphtheria & antirabies serum are obtained from serum of
horses which are actively immunized against the specific
organism.
Sensitivity testsshould be done before giving antisera.

Immunoglobulins:-

 They are human gamma-globulins that carry the
antibodies – like normal human gammaglobulin,
tetanus
Ig,
rabies
Ig,
anti-diphtheria
Ig
&
Hepatitis – B Ig
 Allergic reactions including serum sickness &
anaphylaxis can occur with antiserum, while it is
uncommon with Igs.

 

Primary immunization:-

 It provides primary immunity & is usually given in
children E.g. – DPT.

 

Secondary immunization:-

 It is done to reinforce the primary immunity by giving
booster doses.

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