Some General knowledge about medical

😊 👇🏻 JUST READ IT👇🏻 📄

  1. Most common aortic branch involved in
    Takayasu arteritis : Left subclavian
  2. Most common cause of respiratory
    distress in newborn : Transient tachypnea of
    the newborn
  3. Most common location to see Asbestosis
    sequale : Posterior lower lobes.
  4. Most common karyotype / chromosomal
    abnormality in USA : Down’s syndrome
  5. Most common osseous lymphoma,
    primary and secondary : Diffuse large B-cell
  6. Most common primary malignant orbital
    tumor in childhood : Rhabdomyosarcoma
  7. Most common type of fluid collection in
    scrotum : Hydrocele
  8. Most common type of liposarcoma to
    affect children : Myxoid liposarcoma
  9. Most common abdominal emergency of
    early childhood : Intussusception.
  10. Most common acetabular fracture :
    Posterior acetabulum.
  11. Most common affected bowel segment in
    TB : Ileocecal area.
  12. Most common affected joint in gout :
    First MTP.
  13. Most common AIDS-related neoplasm :
    Kaposi Sarcoma
  14. Most common allergic aspergillosis
    syndrome : Allergic bronchopulmonary
  15. Most common anatomic variant of
    pancreas : Pancreas divisum
  16. Most common anomalous course of RCA :
  17. Most common appearance of Legionella
    at the peak of the disease : Bilateral airspace
  18. Most common assoc. w/ Fx of great toe
    distal phalanx with physeal
    involvement :Osteomyelitis.
  19. Most common associated anomaly with
    coarctation : Bicuspid valve.
  20. Most common association of PAPVR :
    Sinus venosus type ASD.
  21. Most common association with small left
    colon syndrome : Maternal DM
  22. Most common bacterial cause of
    mesenteric adenitis : Yersinia enterocolitica.
  23. Most common benign cardiac rhythm
    abnormality : PAC
  24. Most common benign cartilage-conta
    ining tumor : Osteochondroma
  25. Most common benign growth of the
    skeleton : Osteochondroma
  26. Most common benign hepatic lesion :
  27. Most common benign hepatic tumor
    during fist 6 mo. of life : Infantile
  28. Most common benign intraconal tumor
    of the orbit in adults : Cavernous
  29. Most common benign masses caused by
    asbestos exposure : Atelectatic Asbestos
  30. Most common benign mesenchymal
    tumor of kidney : AML
  31. Most common benign mucosal tumor of
    the esophagus : Papilloma
  32. Most common benign nasopharyngeal
    tumor : Juvenile angiofibroma.
  33. Most common benign orbital tumor in
    childhood : Dermoid Cyst of Orbit
  34. Most common benign ovarian neoplasm
    in young and middle-aged women (<45
    years) :Mature teratoma
  35. Most common benign radiation-induced
    tumor of the musculoskeletal system :
  36. Most common benign rib lesion in an
    adult : Fibrous dysplasia.
  37. Most common benign soft-tissue tumor
    of the foot : Plantar fibromatosis
  38. Most common benign soft-tissue tumor
    of vascular origin : Hemangioma
  39. Most common benign solid tumor in
    women of childbearing age : Fibroadenoma
  40. Most common benign testicular mass :
    Simple cyst
  41. Most common benign tumor of spleen :
  42. Most common benign tumor of the
    larynx : Squamous papilloma
  43. Most common benign tumor of the lung :
  44. Most common benign tumor of the small
    bowel : GIST
  45. Most common benign vascular gastric
    tumor : Glomus tumor of stomach.
  46. Most common bilateral testicular tumor :
  47. Most common biliary complication s/p
    lap. cholecystectomy : Bile duct leak from
    cystic duct stump.
  48. Most common biliary complication s/p
    liver transplantation : Obstruction/stenosis at
  49. Most common bladder neoplasm in
    children younger than 10 years :
  50. Most common bone to develop an
    osteochondroma : Femur (tibia second most


1) Lethal Triad also known as The Trauma Triad of Death
Hypothermia + Coagulopathy + Metabolic Acidosis

2) Beck’s Triad of Cardiac Tamponade
Muffled heart sounds + Distended neck veins + Hypotension

3) Virchow’s Triad – Venous Thrombosis
Hypercoagulability + stasis + endothelial damage

4) Charcot’s Triad – Ascending Cholangitis
Fever with rigors + Right upper quadrant pain + Jaundice

5) Cushing’s Triad – Raised Intracranial Pressure
Bradycardia + Irregular respiration + Hypertension

6) Triad of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Severe Abdominal/Back Pain + Hypotension + Pulsatile Abdominal mass

7) Reactive Arthritis
Can’t See (Conjunctivitis) + Can’t Pee (Urethritis) + Can’t Climb a Tree (Arthritis)

8) Triad of Opioid Overdose
Pinpoint pupils + Respiratory Depression + CNS Depression

9) Hakims Triad – Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Gait Disturbance + Dementia + Urinary Incontinence

10) Horner’s Syndrome Triad
Ptosis + Miosis + Anydrosis

11) Mackler’s Triad – Oesophageal Perforation (Boerhaave Syndrome)
Vomiting + Lower Thoracic Pain + Subcutaneous Emphysema

12) Pheochromocytoma
Palpitations + Headache + Perspiration (Diaphoresis)

13) Leriche Syndrome
Buttock claudication + Impotence + Symmetrical Atrophy of bilateral lower extremities

14) Rigler’s Triad – Gallstone ileus
Gallstones + Pneumobilia + Small bowel obstruction

15) Whipple’s Triad – Insulinoma
Hypoglycemic attack + Low glucose + Resolving of the attack on glucose administration

16) Meniere’s Disease
Tinnitus + Vertigo + Hearing loss

17) Wernicke’s Encephalopathy- Thiamine Deficiency
Confusion + Ophthalmoplegia + Ataxia

18) Unhappy Triad – Knee Injury
Injury to Anterior Cruciate Ligament + Medial collateral ligament + Medial or Lateral Meniscus

19) Henoch Schonlein Purpura
Purpura + Abdominal pain + Joint pain

20) Meigs Syndrome
Benign ovarian tumor + pleural effusion + ascites

21) Felty’s Syndrome
Rheumatoid Arthritis + Splenomegaly + Neutropenia

22) Cauda Equina Syndrome
Low back pain + Bowel/Bladder Dysfunction + Saddle Anesthesia

23) Meningitis
Fever + Headache + Neck Stiffness

24) Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome
Delta Waves + Short PR Interval + Wide QRS Complex

25) Neurogenic Shock
Bradycardia + Hypotension + Hypothermia


1) Body temperature and biological clock of the body is under the control of:
✍ Hypothalamus
2) Average blood pressure:
✍120/80 mm Hg
3) heartbeat is stimulated with the help of :
Sinoatrial node)
4) The only antibody that can cross mothers placenta:
✍ IgG
5) Antibody involved in secretions:
✍ IgA
6) Gluconeogenesis is absent in muscle and brain cells because:
✍ Glucose 6 phosphates enzyme is absent in muscle and brain cells.
7) Antibody involved in allergic reactions:
✍ IgE
8) Production of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors:
✍ Gluconeogenesis
9) Function of Rubisco in dark reactions:
✍ Fix CO2
10)Podocytes are cells of:
✍ Bowman’s capsule
11)Organisms that excrete ammonia are called as:
✍ Amminotelic
12) Columns between the medullary rays of kidney are termed as:
✍ Columns of bertini.


👉 Polymenorrhoea = Regular and frequent menstrual cycle less than 21day in duration.

👉 Menorrhagia= Excessive menstrual blood loss more than 80 ml with normal duration of cycle.

👉 Mettorhagea = Excessive irregular menstrual cycle with normal amount of menstrual blood loss.

👉 Meno-mettorhagea = Excessive irregular menstrual cycle with excessive amount of blood loss

👉 Hypomenorrhoea= decrease amount of blood loss
Less than 20 ml and less than 2day in duration.

👉 Dysmenorrhea= Excessive painful menstrual bleeding with normal duration of menstrual cycle and normal amount of menstrual blood loss.

👉 Cryptomenorrhoea = present of menstrual like symptoms but absence of menstrual bleeding
{Most common course- Imperforate hymen}
Some Human Body Facts

🔹Babies are born with 300 bones – adults have 206

🔸Eyelashes last about 150 days

🔹The heart circulates your blood through your body about 1,000 times each day

🔸You make about half a quart (500ml) of spit each day

🔹The smallest bone in your body is in your ears

🔸Your blood has the same amount of salt in it as the ocean does

🔹A sneeze blows air out of your nose at 100 miles per hour

🔸Children have more taste buds than adults

🔹Your lungs are the only organs in your body that float

🔸Food spends up to 6 hours in the stomach being digested

🔹Your eyeballs are actually part of your brain

🔸Bones are 4 times stronger than concrete

🔹The largest muscle in your body is the one you are sitting on!

👉 Altimeter:- Measures altitudes.

👉 Ammeter:- Measures electric current.

👉 Anemometer:- Measures force and velocity of wind and directions.

👉 Audiometer:- Measures intensity of sound.

👉 Barograph:- Continuous recording of atmospheric pressure.

👉 Barometer:- Measures atmospheric pressure.

👉 Binoculars:- To view distant objects.

👉 Bolometer:- To measure heat radiation.

👉 Callipers:- Measure inner & outer diameters of bodies

👉 Calorimeter:- Measures quantities of heat

👉 Cathetometer:- Determine heights, measurements of levels, etc. in scientific experiments.

👉 Chronometer:- Determines longitude of a vessel at sea

👉 Colorimeter:- Compares intensity of colours.

👉 Commutator:- To change the direction of electrica current.

👉 Cryometer:- A type of thermometer used to measure very low temperature, usually close to 0° C.

👉 Dilatometer:- Measures changes in volume substance.

👉Dynamo:- Converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

👉 Dynamometer:- Measures electrical power.
Registration of birth and death With in 21 days
Start – 1969

Prevention of food adultration act in

Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substance act

Biomedical waste management (BMW)
and revised 2016

Mahatma Gandhi National rural Employment
guarantee act 2005

Right to Information act 2005

Pradhanmantri jandhan Yojana
1 August 2014

National nutritional anaemia prophylaxis program

Integrated child development service scheme

Mid day meal programme

Mid day meal scheme

Integrated management of neonatal and childhood

GOBI + 3 F
G- growth monitoring F- family planning
O- ORS F- female education
B- breastfeeding F- food sanitation
1.Drug for PCM poisoning :- N acetylecystine (mucomyst)

  1. DOC for Acute Asthma:- Salbutamol

3.DOC for Chronic Asthma:- Salmetrol

4.Drug of choice for bipolar disorder:- Lithium

5.Drug of choice for mania:- Lithium

6.Drug of choice for acute mania:-Haloperidol

7.Drug of choice for chronic mania:-Lithum

8.Drug of choice for hyperkalamia:- Kayxalate/sodium natropuroside/insuline+dextrose

9.Drug of choice for Ketoacidosis:- Insuline+dextrose

10.Prophylaxis for Asthma:-Montalucast

11.Drug for Digitalis Toxicity:-Digibind

12.Drug of choice for Acute migraine:-Sumatripatan.



☘️The word cell came from the latin word.
Ans: Cellula

☘️All living organisms are made up of
Ans: Cell

🍀Study of cell – Cytology

🍀Study of tissue – Histology

☘️The physical unit of life
Ans: Protoplasm

☘️Who invented the cell?
Ans: Robert Hook in 1665

☘️Cell theory was proposed by?
Ans: M.J. Schleiden and Theodor Schwann (1839)

☘️Scientist who observed cork cells under a microscope?
Ans: Robert Hook

☘️Plant cell was discovered by?
Ans: Robert Hook

☘️The term protoplasm was coined by 3.E. Purkinje Scientist who called protoplasm as the physical basis of life T.H. Huxley

☘️ Largest cell
Ans: Ostrich’s egg

☘️Smallest cell?
Ans: Mycoplasma

☘️Organisms known as pleuro pneumonia like organism (PPLO)?
Ans: Mycoplasma

☘️Smallest cell in the human body?
Ans: Sperm

☘️Largest cell in human body?
Ans: Ovum

☘️Longest cell in human body?
Ans: Neuron

☘️Power house of a cell?
Ans: Mitochondria

☘️Brain of the cell?
Ans: Nucleus

☘️Kitchen of the cell?
Ans: Chloroplast

☘️Energy Currency of the cell?
Ans: ATP

☘️Suicidal bag?
Ans: Lysosomes

☘️Traffic Police of the cell?
Ans: Golgibodies

☘️Skeletal system of the cell?
Ans: Endoplasmic reticulum

☘️The cell having most life span in human body?
Ans: RBC

☘️Cytoplasm and Nucleus are included in?
Ans: Protoplasm

☘️The cell organelle known as protein factory?
Ans: Ribosome

☘️The organelle in the site of protein synthesis?
Ans: Ribosome

☘️Ribosome has its own?
Ans: RNA

☘️Two types of acids present in cell?
Ans: DNA and RNA

☘️The basic unit of chromosome?
Ans: DNA

☘️The functional unit of DNA?
Ans: Genes

☘️Function of DNA?
Ans: Transmission of hereditary traits

☘️Function of RNA?
Ans: Protein synthesis

☘️Each chromosome has?
Ans: A pair of DNA

☘️DNA sugar is called?
Ans: Deoxyribose

☘️The nitrogen bases in DNA?
Ans: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine

☘️The RNA sugar?
Ans: Ribose

☘️The nitrogen bases in RNA?
Ans : Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine and Guanine

☘️The double helical model of DNA was discovered by?
Ans: James Watson and Francis Crick

☘️The enzyme present in lysosome?
Ans: Hydrolytic enzyme

☘️Lysosome was discovered by?
Ans: Christion de Duve (1955)

☘️Compounds enter the cell through?
Ans: Endoplasmic reticulum

☘️The cell organelle which is the sites of energy transfer in living cell?
Ans: Mitochondria

☘️The functions of mitochondria?
Ans: Cellular respiration, ATP production

☘️The stage of cellular respiration which does not need oxygen?
Ans: Glycolysis

☘️The term Mitochondria was coined by?
Ans: Carl Benda (1898)

☘️Name the process in which the main product is energy?
Ans: Cellular respiration

☘️In mitochondria the energy is formed in the form of?
Ans: ATP molecules

☘️Which molecule is known as the energy currency?
Ans : ATP molecule

Ans: Adenosine Triphosphate

☘️The cell that lacks mitochondria and nucleus?
Ans: RBC

☘️Number of ATP molecule that will get from one molecule of glucose?
Ans: 38ATP

☘️The elements in the component of ATP?
Ans: Nitrogen and phosphorus

☘️Kerb’s cycle is related to?
Ans: Cellular respiration

☘️Cell respiration was discovered by?
Ans: Adolf Krebs

☘️The whole process of a cell is controlled by?
Ans: Nucleus

☘️The cell without nucleus?
Ans: Prokaryotic cell

☘️The cell with nucleus?
Ans : Eukaryotic cell

☘️Nucleus was discovered by?
Ans : Robert Brown

☘️Name the process in which lysosome digest its own cell organelles?
Ans: Autoplagy

☘️A network like structure inside the nucleus is called?
Ans: Chromatin Reticulum

☘️The structure of cell is first explained in the book of?
Ans: Micrographia

☘️The living thing which do not obey cell theory?
Ans: Virus*

☘️The scientist first studied about all structure and cell reaction?
Ans: Theodor Schwaan

☘️Schwaan cell are seen in?
Ans: Nerve cell


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