Reproductive Health

🛑Notes on Reproductive Health

✍️Amniocentesis
(a) During pregnancy, the fetus is surrounded by amniotic fluid which is a water-like substance.
(b) Amniotic fluid contains live fetal skin cells and other substances, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).
(c) These substances provide important information about baby’s health before birth.
(d) These days amniocentesis is being misused also, i.e., for detecting the sex of the foetus.
(e) Normal foetus is being aborted if it is a female.

✍️Sexually transmitted diseases ( STDs)
Diseases which are transmitted sexually through sexual intercourse are collectively called as Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) or Venereal Diseases (VDs) or reproductive tract infections (RTI). STDs can be classified as viral, bacterial, protozoan, fungal, etc.
✍️Causes of STD’s
STDs can be spread with any type of sexual activity, depending on the disease. STDs are most often caused by viruses and bacteria.
✍️Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The various types of sexually transmitted diseases include genital herps, chancroid, gonorrhoea, syphilis and most common HIV leading to AIDS.
✓(i) Chlamydiasis
(a) Chlamydiasis is a sexually transmitted disease in humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
(b) It is a major infectious cause of human genetial and eye diseases.
✓(ii) Gonorrhoea
(a) Gonorrhoea is transmitted sexually, by oral, anal or genital sex.
(b) Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
✍️Prevention
STDs are a major threat to a healthy society.
(i) Avoid sex with unknown partners as well as multiple partners.
(ii) Always use condoms during coitus.
(iii) In case of any doubt, go to a qualified doctor for early detection and get complete treatment if diagnosed with disease.
✍️Infertility
(a) Inability to conceive or produce children even after 2 years of unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility.
(b) A large no of couples all over India are infertile.
(c) The reasons for this could be many-physical, congenital, diseases, drugs, Immunological or even Psychological.
✍️Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
Includes all fertility symptoms in which both sperms and eggs are handled. These are special techniques that assist couples to have children.
✍️The main ART- techniques include:
(i) In-vitro fertilisation (IVF)
(ii) Zygote intra fallopian transfer (ZIFT)
(iii) Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI)
(iv) Gamete intra fallopian transfer(GIFT)
(v) Artifical insemination (AI)
*(1) In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
(a) Fertilization outside the body in almost similar conditions as are in the body.
(b) This method is popularly known as test tube baby programme.
(c) In this technique, ova from the wife / donor (female) and sperms from the husband / donor (male) are collected and are induced to form the zygote under simulated conditions in the lab.
(d) The zygote or early embryos could then be transferred into the fallopian tube (ZIFT -zygote intra fallopian transfer).
*(2) Zygote intra fallopian transfer (ZIFT)
(a) ZIFT is an assisted reproductive procedure similar to in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.
(b) The difference is that the fertilized embryo is transferred into the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
(c) As the fertilized egg is transferred directly into the tubes, the procedure is also referred to as tubal embryo transfer (TET).
*(3) Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
(a) Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an assisted reproductive technology (ART)
(b) It is used to treat sperm-related infertility problems.
(c) ICSI is used to enhance the fertilization phase of in vitro fertilization (IVF) by injecting a single sperm into a mature egg.
(d)The fertilized egg is then placed in a woman’s uterus or fallopian tube.
*(4) Gamete intra fallopian tube (GIFT)
(a) The process of transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce one, but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation and further development is another method attempted.

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