This act was formulated in 1954 to make provision for the prevention of adulteration of food and water amended in 1964, 1976 and later in 1986. The Act was promulgated by the Parliament in 1954 to make provision for the prevention of adulteration of food. PFA Act covers food standards general procedures for sampling. Analyzing of food, power of authorized officers, nature of penalties and other parameters related to food.

Food adulteration: –

It can be defined as a process of degrading the quality of food being sold by the addition or use of inferior quality substances or by extracting some valuable components of a food article. It is a common fraudulent practice adopted by the sellers to earn profit.

Adulteration usually refers to mixing of any inferior or harmful quality matter with food and drink intended to be sold. As a result food or drink becomes unfit for human consumption.

• Food is considered adulterated if it fulfils any of the below mentioned points:

If food is sub-standard rotten, decomposed or obtained from diseased animal or is insect infected or is otherwise unfit for human consumption.

If food contains any other substance which affects, injuriously the nature, substance or quality of food.

If the article has been prepared, parked or kept under insanitary conditions whereby it has become contaminated or injurious to health.

If article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which renders it injurious to health.

If the amount of prescribed coloring matter which is present in the article are not within the prescribed limits of variability.

If article contains preservative in excess of the prescribed limits.

If the quality or purity of the article fall below the prescribed standard or its constituents are  present in.

Punishment: –

According to this Act a minimum imprisonment of 6 months with minimum fine of  1,000 is charged in case of proven adulteration whereas for the cases of adulteration, which  may render the food injurious to cause death or such harm, the punishment may go to one year  imprisonment and a fine which shall not be less than `5,000/-. Penalties  .

The new anti-adulteration law makes food adulteration an offence punishable with life time imprisonment and can be fined up to `10 Lakh. This Act was passed by the Parliament in 2006.

Objectives  :-

• To protect the public from poisonous and harmful food.

• To protect the sale of substandard foods.

• To protect the interest of the consumer by eliminating fraudulent practice.

Sale is prohibited in case of:

A cream which has not been prepared from the milk or contains less than 25% of milk fat.

Milk which contains added water.

Mixture of two or more edible oils.

Food which contains any artificial sweetener beyond the prescribed limit.

Curd not made out of milk.

Milk products contain constituent other than of milk.

Turmeric containing any other foreign substance.

Procedure for Sampling and Analysis

Any food inspector can inspect any place where any article of food is manufactured or stored for sale  or exhibited for sale.  A notice will be issued by the inspector then and there to the seller.

Three samples are taken one  sample is sent for the analysis to public analyst. The other two samples are sent to the local health  authority.

Important Miscellaneous Provisions

If any extraneous additions of coloring matter are added, the same should be mentioned on the  label.

Addition of artificial sweetener should be mentioned on the label.

Use of carbide gas (acetylene) gas for ripening is prohibited.

Sale of food colors without license is prohibited.

Containers of any material which is not according to the standards are not to be used, e.g., rusted  containers, chipped enamel containers.

Milk powder or condensed milk can be sold only with ISI mark.

Use of more than one type of preservative is prohibited.

Oils can be manufactured in licensed factories.

Insect damaged dry fruits and nuts are prohibited.



A nutrient is anything that nourishes a living being. We humans get our nutrients from what we eat,  plants get it from the soil. It is important for our health to get the proper nutrients. Different food contains different  nutrients. They give us energy to perform daily functions, as well as fuel to build tissues and grow. These  nutrients are broken up into two distinct categories.

• Macronutrients

• Micronutrients


Macronutrients are substances that provide calories which are metabolized for energy. They are  called macronutrients because human needs them in large amount. Macronutrients are vital for every  function we perform in the body because they serve as fuel for the body.

Main three macronutrients  with their own caloric value are as follows:

• Carbohydrates = 4 kcal/g

• Fat = 9 kcal/g

• Protein = 4 kcal/g


Carbohydrates are the major source of energy. About 50–70% of energy value in the average diet is  provided by carbohydrates. They are easily converted into fuel. Digestive system changes carbohydrates  into glucose. Body uses this glucose for energy for cells, tissues and organs.

*Caloric Value of Carbohydrates

Humans need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles.  In our country 60–80% of a day’s energy needs are met from carbohydrates in the form of starch derived  from cereals and pulses. Calories are needed to provide energy for the functioning of the body. The  number of calories in a food depends on the amount of energy the food provides. The number of calories  a person needs depends upon his age, height, weight, gender and activity level.

Foods are composed  of mainly carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins and  water represent all weight of food but vitamins and minerals making up only small percent of weight.  These elements are produced different quantities of energy when burnt. The amount of energy  produced when one gram of any of these elements is burnt is known as its caloric value.  The caloric value of carbohydrate is 4 calorie.

*Recommended Daily Allowances

It is the amount of nutrient and calorie intake per day considered necessary for maintenance of good  health, calculated for males and females of various ages and recommended by the food and nutrition  board of National Research Council.

Children and adults should consume 45–65% of their calorie intake as carbohydrates and at least  130 g of carbohydrates per day. To find out number of grams of carbohydrates needed each day calculate  45–65% of your total calorie intake and dividing by 4. For example if we eat 2,000 calorie diet than the  amount of carbohydrate is 225–325 g/day.

*Dietary Sources

The important sources of carbohydrates in the children and adults are cereals, millets, roots, tubers,  pulses, sugar and jaggery. Milk and sugar are important sources in the diets of infants.


They are one of the building blocks of body tissues and can also serve as a fuel source. Proteins are  required for growth in children and maintenance of body weight in adults. Protein constitutes about  20% of the body weight.

Protein can found in all cells of body by mainly in muscles.Food rich in protein includes meat, poultry, fish, nuts, egg, milk and milk products. Proteins are made up of simpler chemical  substances known as amino acids. The nutrient value of protein depends on their amino acid contents.

*Caloric Value of Proteins

Calories are needed to provide energy to body for proper functioning. The number of calories in a food  depends on the amount of the energy food provides. One gram of protein gives 4 kcal.

The recommended  daily allowances for protein is given in Table 1.2.

*Dietary Sources

Animal products are rich sources of proteins. Animal protein has a balanced combination of all the  amino acid, hence it is called as complete protein. On the other hand plant protein is incomplete  except soybean protein. So a vegetarian person requires a variety in plant protein sources for proper  development. Incomplete protein is deficient in one or more of the essential amino acids.

*Animal sources

Meat, egg, milk, cheese, fish, egg proteins are considered to be the best among food proteins because of  their high biological value and digestibility.

*Vegetable sources

It includes pulses, beans, cereals, nuts and oil seeds. In developing countries like India, cereals and  pulses are the main sources of dietary protein because they are cheap, easily available.

Table 1.2: Recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for protein

Group                                           Particulars                           Protein (day)

Man                                          Sedentary work

Moderate work                          60

Heavy work

Woman                                    Sedentary work                         50

Moderate work

Heavy work

Pregnant women                   50+15

Lactating woman

0–6 months                             50+25

6–12 months                                50 +18

Infants                                       0–6 months                                  2.05 kg

6-12 months                                 1.65 kg

Children                                     1–3 years                                         22

4–6 years                                         30

7–9 years                                        41

Boys                                        10–12 years                                         54

Girls                                        10–12 years                                          57

Boys                                        13–15 years                                         70

Girls                                        13–15 years                                         65

Boys                                        16–18 years                                         78

Girls                                         16–18 years                                         63


Fats  :-

Fat is a major nutritional element and a vital aspect of healthy diet. Fat helps to maintain body  temperature. Fat cushions organs which protects them from trauma, Excessive fats lead to obesity.  A molecule of dietary fat typically consist of several fatty acids. Fat may be classified as saturated or  unsaturated depending on the structure of fatty acid involved.


These are essential dietary elements that are needed  only in very small quantities. Micronutrients are  also known as trace elements.



Vitamins  :-

Vitamins are micronutrients as they are required  in small amount. Vitamins are organic compounds  occurring in small quantities in the different  natural food and necessary for the growth and  maintenance of good health in human beings.  Many of them cannot be synthesized, at least  inadequate amounts, by the body and must be  obtained from the diet. So far, about 15 different  vitamins have been isolated in a pure state from natural foods.

• Fat-soluble vitamins

• Water-soluble vitamins




Minerals  :-

Mineral elements are chemical substances found  in body tissue and fluids. They occur in foods as  salts. The body contains about 24 minerals, all of  which must be provided by the diet. Broadly the  two kinds of minerals are: macrominerals and  trace minerals.  The macrominerals consist of calcium,  phosphorus, manganese, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfur.  The trace means in little quantity but even body needs them equally.

Trace minerals include iron,  manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride and selenium. All having different functions in our  body like calcium is required for bones and teeth. Phosphorus is the constituents of body cells of  soft tissues such as muscles, liver, etc. Iron and copper helps in formation of hemoglobin. Zinc is a  constituents of an enzyme, etc.


Functions of Minerals  :-

The functions of minerals are following:

Minerals play a main role in the maintenance of osmotic pressure, and thus regulate the exchange of water and solutes within the animal body.

Minerals are essential constituents of skeletal structures such as bones and teeth.

Minerals serve as structural constituents of soft tissues.

Minerals are essential for the transmission of nerve impulses and muscles contraction.

Minerals play a vital role in the acid-base equilibrium of the body, and thus regulate the pH of the  blood and other body fluids.

Minerals serve as essential components of many enzymes, vitamins, hormones and respiratory pigments, or as cofactors in metabolism, catalysts and enzyme activators.




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