• a.c.: Before meals. As in taking a medicine before meals.
• a/g ratio: Albumin to globulin ratio.
• ACL: Anterior cruciate ligament. ACL injuries are one of the most common ligament injuries to the knee. The ACL can be sprained or completely torn from trauma and or degeneration.
• Ad lib: At liberty. For example, a patient may be permitted to move out of bed freely and orders would, therefore, be for activities to be ad lib.
• AFR: Acute renal failure
• ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
• ADR: Adverse drug reaction. If a patient is taking a prescription drug to treat high blood pressure disease
• AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
• AKA: Above the knee amputation.
• Anuric: Not producing urine. A person who is anuric is often critical and may require dialysis .
• ANED: Alive no evidence of disease. The patient arrived in the ER alive with no evidence of disease.
• ADH: Antidiuretic hormone
• ARDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome .
• ARF: Acute renal (kidney) failure
• ASCVD: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease . A form of heart disease .


• b.i.d.: Twice daily. As in taking a medicine twice daily.
• bld: Blood. Blood was visible on the patient’s scalp .
• Bandemia: Slang for elevated level of band forms of white blood cells.
• Bibasilar: At the bases of both lungs. For example, someone with a pneumonia in both lungs might have abnormal bibasilar breath sounds.
• BKA: Below the knee amputation.
• BMP: Basic metabolic panel. Electrolytes (potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride) and creatinine and glucose.
• BP: Blood pressure . Blood pressure is recorded as part of the physical examination. It is one of the “vital signs.”
• BPD: Borderline personality disorder . A personality disorder.
• BSO: Bilateral salpingo- oophorectomy . A BSO is the removal of both of the ovaries and adjacent Fallopian tubes and often is performed as part of a total abdominal hysterectomy .


• C&S: Culture and sensitivity, performed to detect infection.
• C/O: Complaint of. The patient’s expressed concern.
cap: Capsule.
• Ca: Cancer ; carcinoma . For example, a patient who undergoing treatment for cancer should assure that they are eating and drinking enough fluids daily, both during and after treatment.
• CABG. Coronary artery bypass graft . A surgery involving the heart.
• CBC: Complete blood count.
• CC: Chief complaint. The patient’s main concern.
• CDE: Complete dental (oral) evaluation.
• cc: Cubic centimeters. For example, the amount of fluid removed from the body is recorded in ccs.
• Chem panel: Chemistry panel. A comprehensive screening blood test that indicates the status of the liver, kidneys, and electrolytes.
• CPAP: Continuous positive airway pressure. A treatment for sleep apnea.
• COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
• CT: Chemotherapy . A type of treatment therapy for cancer.
• CVA: Cerebrovascular accident (Stroke).


• D/C or DC: Discontinue or discharge. For example, a doctor will D/C a drug.
ー Alternatively, the doctor might DC a patient from the hospital.
• DCIS: Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.
ー A type of breast cancer. The patient is receiving treatment for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.
• DDX: Differential diagnosis.
ー A vari diagnostic possibilities are being considered to diagnose the type of cancer present in the patient.
• DJD: Degenerative joint disease.
ー Another term for osteoarthritis .
• DM: Diabetes mellitus.
• DNC, D&C, or D and C: Dilation and curettage.
ー Widening the cervix and scrapping with a curette for the purpose of removing tissue lining the inner surface of the womb (uterus).
• DNR: Do not resuscitate.
ー This is a specific order not to revive a patient artificially if they succumb to illness. If a patient is given a DNR order, they are not resuscitated if they are near death and no code blue is called.

• DOE: Dyspnea on exertion.
ー Shortness of breath with activity.
• DTR: Deep tendon reflexes.
ー These are reflexes that the doctor tests by banging on the tendons with a rubber hammer.
• DVT: Deep venous thrombosis (blood clot in large vein).


• ETOH: Alcohol. ETOH intake history is often recorded as part of a patient history.
• ECT: Electroconclusive therapy.
ー A procedure used to control seizures (convulsions).


• FX: Fracture.


• g: gram, a unit of weight.
ー The cream is available in both 30 and 60 gram tubes.
• GOMER: Slang for “Get Out of My Emergency Room.”
• GvHD: Graft vs. host disease.
ー It is complicated by the syndromes of acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD).
• gtt: Drops.


• H&H: Hemoglobin and hematocrit.
ー When the H & H is low, anemia is present. The H&H can be elevated in persons who have lung disease from long term smoking or from disease,
such as polycythemia rubra vera .
• H&P: History and physical examination.
• h.s.: At bedtime.
ー As in taking a medicine at bedtime.
• H/O or h/o: History of.
ー A past event that occurred.
• HA: Headache.
• HRT: Hormone replacement or hormone replacement therapy.
• HTN: Hypertension.


• I&D: Incision and drainage.
• IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease .
ー A name for two disorders of the gastrointestinal (BI) tract, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
• ICD: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator.
• ICU: Intensive care unit.
ー The patient was moved to the intensive care unit.
• IM: Intramuscular.
ー This is a typical notation when noting or ordering an injection (shot) given into muscle, such as with B12 for pernicious anemia.
• IMP: Impression.
ー This is the summary conclusion of the patient’s condition by the healthcare professional at that particular date and time.
• ITU: Intensive therapy unit
• in vitro: In the laboratory
• in vivo: In the body
• IPF: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
ー A type of lung disease.
• IU: International units.

• JT: Joint.

• K: Potassium.
ー An essential electrolyte frequently monitored regularly in intensive care.
• KCL: Potassium chloride .

• LCIS: Lobular Carcinoma In Situ.
ー A type of cancer of the breast. The patient is receiving treatment for Lobular
Carcinoma In Situ.
• LBP: Low back pain.
ー LBP is one of most common medical complaints.
• LLQ: Left lower quadrant.
ー Diverticulitis pain is often in the LLQ of the abdomen.
• LUQ: Left upper quadrant.
ー The spleen is located in the LUQ
of the abdomen.
• Lytes: Electrolytes (potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, and chloride).

• MCL: Medial collateral ligament.
• mg: Milligrams.
• M/H: Medical history
• ml: Milliliters.
• MVP: Mitral valve prolapse .

• N/V: Nausea or vomiting.
• Na: Sodium.
ー An essential electrolyte frequently monitored regularly in intensive care.
• NCP: Nursing care plan.
• npo: Nothing by mouth.
ー For example, if a patient was about to undergo a surgical operation requiring general anesthesia, they may be required to avoid food or beverage prior to the procedure.
• NSR: Normal sinus rhythm of the heart

• O&P: Ova and parasites.
ー Stool O & P is tested in the laboratory to detect parasitic infection in persons with chronic diarrhea .
• O.D.: Right eye.
• O.S.: Left eye.
• O.U.: Both eyes.
• ORIF: Open reduction and internal fixation, such as with the orthopedic repair of a hip fracture .

• P: Pulse. Pulse is recorded as part of the physical examination.
ー It is one of the “vital signs.”
• p¯: After meals. As in take two tablets after meals.
• p.o. : By mouth.
ー From the Latin terminology per os.
• p.r.n. : As needed.
ー So that it is not always done, but done only when the situation calls for it (or example, taking a pain medication only when having pain and not without pain).

• PCL: Posterior cruciate ligament.
• PD: Progressive disease.
ー Patients at risk of developing progressive disease of the kidneys include those with proteinuria or hematuria .
• PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation.
• PFT: Pulmonary function test. A test to evaluate the how well the lungs are functioning.
• PERRLA: Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light and accommodation.
Plt: Platelets, one of the blood forming elements along with the white and red blood cells.
• PMI: Point of maximum impulse of the heart when felt during examination, as in beats against the chest.
• PMS: Premenstrual syndrome
• PT: Physical therapy
• PTH: Parathyroid hormone
• PTSD: Post-traumatic stress syndrome
• PUD: Peptic ulcer disease. A type of ulcer of the stomach.

• q.d.: Each day.
ー As in taking a medicine daily.
• q.i.d.: Four times daily.
ー As in taking a medicine four times daily.
• q2h: Every 2 hours.
ー As in taking a medicine every 2 hours.
• q3h: Every 3 hours.
ー As in taking a medicine every 3 hours.
• qAM: Each morning.
ー As in taking a medicine each morning.
• qhs: At each bedtime.
ー As in taking a medicine each bedtime.
• qod: Every other day.
ー As in taking a medicine every other
• qPM: Each evening.
ー As in taking a medicine each evening.

• RA: Rheumatoid arthritis.
ー A type of joint disease.
• RDS: Respiratory distress syndrome.
• R/O: Rule out.
ー Doctors frequently will rule out various possible diagnoses when figuring out the correct diagnosis.
• REB: Rebound, as in rebound tenderness of the abdomen when pushed in and then released.(Biohackers)
• RLQ: Right lower quadrant.
ー The appendix is located in the
• RLQ of the abdomen.
• ROS: Review of systems.
ー An overall review concerns relating to the organ systems, such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurologic systems.
• RUQ: Right upper quadrant.
ー The liver is located in the RUQ of the abdomen.

• s/p: Status post. For example, a person who had a knee operation would be s/p a knee operation.
• SAD: Season affective disorder.
ー A type of(Biohackers) depression that occurs during the winter months when there is little light.
• SOB: Shortness of breath.
• SQ: Subcutaneous.
ー This is a typical notation when noting or ordering an injection (shot) given into the fatty tissue under the skin, such as with insulin for diabetesmellitus.

• T: Temperature.
ー Temperature is recorded as part of the physical examination. (Biohackers)It is one of the “vital signs.”
• T&A: Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
• t.i.d. : Three times daily.
ー As in taking a medicine three times daily.
• tab: Tablet.
• TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy.
• TAH: Total abdominal hysterectomy.
ー A type of surgery to remove a woman’s uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
• THR: Total hip replacement.
• TKR: Total knee replacement.
• TMJ : Tempomandibular joint.

• UA or u/a: Urinalysis.
ー A UA is a typical part of a comprehensive physical examination.
• U or u**: Unit. Mistaken as the number 0 or 4, causing a 10- fold overdose or greater (for example, 4U seen as “40” or 4useen as “44”); mistaken as “cc” so the dose is given in volume instead of units (for example, 4u seen as 4cc).
• ULN: Upper limits of normal.
• URI: Upper respiratory infection, such as sinusitis or the common cold.
• ut dict: As directed.
ー As in taking a medicine according to the instructions that the health care professional gave in the office or in the past
• UTI: Urinary tract infection.

• VSS: Vital signs are stable.
ー This notation means that from the standpoint of the temperature, blood pressure, and pulse, the patient is doing well.

• Wt: Weight.
ー Body weight is often recorded as part of the physical examination.

• XRT: Radiotherapy (external).
ー A type of treatment that uses radiation.



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