HORMONES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

HORMONES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

  1. Growth hormone (GH) Or somatotropic hormone (STH)
    Function ~ stimulates growth by stimulating protein synthesis.
  2.  
  3. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    Function ~ stimulates thyroid secretion.
  4.  
  5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    Function ~ stimulates the production of of steroids by adrenal cortex.
  6. Gonadotropic hormones
  7.  

(i) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Function ~ stimulates gamate, production, secration of sex hormones, development of follicles.

(ii) interstitial cell stimulating hormone ( ICSH) or luteinising hormone (LH)
Function ~ stimulates the leydig cells of testis and induces secretion of testosterone. stimulates development of Corpus luteum and ovulation in female.

  1. Luteotropic hormone ( LTH) or prolactin
    Function ~ stimulates the growth of mammary glands, lactation and maintenance of Corpus luteum.
  2. Melanocyte stimulating hormone
    Function ~ controls dispersal of melanophores , in man it is doubtful.
  3.  
  4. Oxytocin
    Function ~ stimulates secretion of milk from mammary glands ; causes contraction of uterus at the time of child birth.
  5.  
  6. Antidiuretic hormone or ADH (vasopressin)
    Function ~ stimulates the nephrons for reabsorption of water.
    Stimulates contraction of smooth muscles , blood vessels and causes rise in blood pressure.
  7.  
  8. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
    Function ~ control metabolism , regulate body temperature by calorigenic action.
  9.  
  10. Thyrocalcitonin (TCT)
    Function ~ controls calcium (Ca++) level in blood , Check osteoporosis .
  11.  
  12. Parathormone
    Function ~ maintains proper level of calcium and phosphorus by regulating renal action , thus , controlling calcium and phosphate amount in bones.
  13.  
  14. Insulin (from β cells)
  15. Function ~ stimulates metabolism of carbohydrates. Influences the storage and utilization of sugar , inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis stimulates glycogenesis.
  16.  
  17. Glucagon (from α cell)
    Function ~ influences the enzymatic action of phosphorylase , controlling glycogenolysis in tha liver and muscles ; increases the amount of sugar in blood.
    Antagonistic to insulin , inhibits glycogenesis.
  18.  
  19. Somatostatin(ss)
    Function ~ suppresses the release of hormones from the pancrease and digestive track.
  20.  
  21. Pancreatic polypeptide
    Function ~ inhibits the release of digestive secretion of the pancrease.
  22.  
  23. Adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (Norepinephrine)
    Function ~ Regulates heart beat , blood pressure , sympathetic nervous system , contraction of involuntary muscles of lung , eyes , gut etc. , Production of blood , flow of saliva and sweat under emotional state.
  24.  
  25. Adrenocorticoids
    Function ~ regulate water and electrolyte balance, regulate fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism; stimulate development of male and female secondary sexual characters.
  26.  
  27. Testosterone (leydig’s cells)
    Function ~ affects the normal development and functions of secondary sexual organs and characters in male.
  28. ~ stimulate formation of sperms.
  29.  
  30. Estrogen (graafian follicles )
    Function ~ Affects development and maintenance of secondary sexual characters in female.
    ~ stimulate maturation of ova.
  31.  
  32. Progesterone ( ovary and Corpus luteum )
    Function ~ stimulates uterus for pregnancy, implantation and formation of placenta, also stimulates mammary glands.
  33.  
  34. Relaxin ( Corpus luteum )
    Function ~ relaxes ligaments of pelvic girdle at the time of birth.
  35.  
  36. Human chorionic gonadotropin or HCG (placenta)
    Function ~ pravints disintegration of the Corpus luteum and maintains progesterone production.

 

  1. Serotonin
    Function ~ Helps in vasoconstriction of blood vessels.
  2.  
  3. Melatonin
    Function ~ Reduces quantity of FSH and LH, Acts as anti gonadotropic hormone.
  4.  
  5. Thymosin
    Function ~ regulates growth, stimulates proliferation of lymphocytes and also hastens sexual maturity.

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