HORMONES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
- Growth hormone (GH) Or somatotropic hormone (STH)
Function ~ stimulates growth by stimulating protein synthesis.
- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Function ~ stimulates thyroid secretion.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Function ~ stimulates the production of of steroids by adrenal cortex.
- Gonadotropic hormones
(i) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Function ~ stimulates gamate, production, secration of sex hormones, development of follicles.
(ii) interstitial cell stimulating hormone ( ICSH) or luteinising hormone (LH)
Function ~ stimulates the leydig cells of testis and induces secretion of testosterone. stimulates development of Corpus luteum and ovulation in female.
- Luteotropic hormone ( LTH) or prolactin
Function ~ stimulates the growth of mammary glands, lactation and maintenance of Corpus luteum.
- Melanocyte stimulating hormone
Function ~ controls dispersal of melanophores , in man it is doubtful.
Function ~ stimulates secretion of milk from mammary glands ; causes contraction of uterus at the time of child birth.
- Antidiuretic hormone or ADH (vasopressin)
Function ~ stimulates the nephrons for reabsorption of water.
Stimulates contraction of smooth muscles , blood vessels and causes rise in blood pressure.
- Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
Function ~ control metabolism , regulate body temperature by calorigenic action.
- Thyrocalcitonin (TCT)
Function ~ controls calcium (Ca++) level in blood , Check osteoporosis .
Function ~ maintains proper level of calcium and phosphorus by regulating renal action , thus , controlling calcium and phosphate amount in bones.
- Insulin (from β cells)
- Function ~ stimulates metabolism of carbohydrates. Influences the storage and utilization of sugar , inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis stimulates glycogenesis.
- Glucagon (from α cell)
Function ~ influences the enzymatic action of phosphorylase , controlling glycogenolysis in tha liver and muscles ; increases the amount of sugar in blood.
Antagonistic to insulin , inhibits glycogenesis.
Function ~ suppresses the release of hormones from the pancrease and digestive track.
- Pancreatic polypeptide
Function ~ inhibits the release of digestive secretion of the pancrease.
- Adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (Norepinephrine)
Function ~ Regulates heart beat , blood pressure , sympathetic nervous system , contraction of involuntary muscles of lung , eyes , gut etc. , Production of blood , flow of saliva and sweat under emotional state.
Function ~ regulate water and electrolyte balance, regulate fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism; stimulate development of male and female secondary sexual characters.
- Testosterone (leydig’s cells)
Function ~ affects the normal development and functions of secondary sexual organs and characters in male.
- ~ stimulate formation of sperms.
- Estrogen (graafian follicles )
Function ~ Affects development and maintenance of secondary sexual characters in female.
~ stimulate maturation of ova.
- Progesterone ( ovary and Corpus luteum )
Function ~ stimulates uterus for pregnancy, implantation and formation of placenta, also stimulates mammary glands.
- Relaxin ( Corpus luteum )
Function ~ relaxes ligaments of pelvic girdle at the time of birth.
- Human chorionic gonadotropin or HCG (placenta)
Function ~ pravints disintegration of the Corpus luteum and maintains progesterone production.
Function ~ Helps in vasoconstriction of blood vessels.
Function ~ Reduces quantity of FSH and LH, Acts as anti gonadotropic hormone.
Function ~ regulates growth, stimulates proliferation of lymphocytes and also hastens sexual maturity.