HIV- human immunodeficiency virus.
Target- immune system.-CD4+cell
Family- immunodeficiency
Complications-aids(Acquired immuno deficiency syndromes)


HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system. If HIV is not treated, it can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

There is currently no effective cure. Once people get HIV, they have it for life.
But with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. People with HIV who get effective HIV treatment can live long, healthy lives and protect their partners.

Types -1:-HIV 1
              2:-HIV 2
HIV:-1- aids in us and world wide
HIV:-2-aids in westem , Africa and Southcrn,asia


Cases of HIV progress through three stages:

stage 1: acute stage, the first few weeks after transmission

stage 2: clinical latency, or chronic stage

stage 3: AIDS

HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids that include:



*vaginal and rectal fluids

*breast milk

HIV transmission: -Know the facts

*Anyone can contract HIV. The

Some of the ways doneHIV is spread from person to person include:

*through vaginal or anal sex — the most common route of transmission, especially among men who have sex with men

*by sharing needles, syringes, and other items for injection drug use

*by sharing tattoo equipment without sterilizing it between uses

*during pregnancy, labor, or delivery from a woman to her baby

*during breastfeeding

*through “pre-mastication,” or chewing a baby’s food before feeding it to them

*through exposure to the blood of someone living with HIV, such as through a needle stick

*The virus can also be transmitted through a blood transfusion or organ and tissue transplant.


*oral sex (only if there are bleeding gums or open sores in the person’s mouth)

*being bitten by a person with HIV (only if the saliva is bloody or there are open sores in the person’s mouth)

*contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and the blood of someone living with HIV

-HIV does NOT spread through:

skin-to-skin contact

hugging, shaking hands, or kissing

air or water

sharing food or drinks, including drinking fountains

saliva, tears, or sweat (unless mixed with the blood of a person with HIV)

sharing a toilet, towels, or bedding

mosquitoes or other insects


Early symptoms of HIV can include:



swollen lymph nodes

general aches and pains

skin rash

sore throat



upset stomach

HIV pretest post test counseling for pagnency women:-
-cos has out lined through recommendedection for HIV counselling to resting for pregnant women.

-all pregnant women should be tested for HIV as early.

-as a possible during pregnancy and screening should be included and in routine plan of prenatal screening test.

-patient should be informed that HIV screening.

-recommended  for all pregnant women 2 that it will be performed undess they dislike.

-assess  to clinical care prevention counseling and support survive in essential for women with +ve HIV test

– repeated HIV testing in the 3rd times in also recommend for all women  in areas with higher ratel.


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