Hepatitis is inflammation of liver .viral hepatitis is the most common cause of hepatitis.the typesof viral hepatitis are A,B,C,D,E and G. hepatitis is also caused by bacteria,such as streptococcus, salmonella and Escherichia coli.Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Epstein-braa virus(EBV)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)Cause:-. hepatitis viruses (a,b,c,d,e and g). bacteria (streptococcus, salmonella,E.coli).ingesting contaminated food and water..close contact with affected person..low environmental sanitation.. people living beside sewage..due to drugs and poisoning.. accumulation of uppor in liver called wilson Disease.. circulatory insufficiency..from infected mother to new born.Symptoms:-.Loss of appetite.Nausea vomiting.Abdominal pain.Fever.Headache.Body aches.Fatigue.Flue-like symptoms.Dark urine.Pale stool.Unexpled weight loss
Jundices,(dark color urine and pale stool paleness skin , yellow sikn,)Diagnosis:-.Blood test.Serum billirubin level increase.SGPT and SGOT levrl increase.Prothrombin time increase.USG.CT-SCANPathological changes:-.mainly all types of hepatitis develops through feco-oral route,and direct contact spreading from one peeson to other person.
.so viruses first inoculate lingested by the host body.then started viremia which is the process of replication of viruses.
. through protal circulation viruses started affecting liver cells by presenting themselves in a specific area of liver.
. Due to replication at liver side , cellular immune responses got activated ,and tissue information stared .
.the liver cells be come developing as necrosis due to the deformation genetic mutation by virulence.*It hepatitis recovery with in 6 months its called Acute hepatitis.
*It remains more than 6 months than it is chronic hepatitis.
*Once it becomes chronic thsn there is chances of liver damange whice may cause cirrhosis of liver and liver cancer.So early diagnosis and treatment is necessary in thise disease.Treatment and mangment:-.Completely bed rest.Avoid physical activity.Light diet avoid fried &spicy.Should take more fluid.Drink boiled water.Avoid alcohol.Avoid medicine whice harm liver.Liv 52 to and multivitamines.Treatment of underlining course as mentionedClinical features:-
. There are 3 phages.
1.prodormal symptoms:
*all symptoms include.
*viremiy (virus in blood)
*flue like symptoms
(fever, headache,fatigue, anorexia and nausea, joints and muscles pains ,skie rashes2.icteric phase:*Damage of liver
* jaundice
Unconjugated + conjugated
(Hepatocyte (bile ductules
Damaged, Damage)
Loss of
*dark urin:
Unconjugated bilirubin leaks in to blood.
Enlargement of liver
Due to inflammation blood (AIT,AST)3.convalescent phage:(Recovery phage) (symptoms become mild and gradually improve.
*Liver size returns to normal
*Appetite improve
*Jundice decreases
*Stool and urine reture to normal colorRecovery:-
*Hepatitis A&B -(12 months)
*Hepatitis B&C- (3-4 months)
(Longes chronic viruses)
*Recovery from hepatitis depends.
*Types of virus
*Health and immunity
*System status
*Age of patients (imp):-
Acute infection. (Vs). Chronic infections
*Hepatitis A&E:-.Very less
. symptoms
.70 -90 jaundice
.in case of chile no chance of chronic infections.
(.immunity system less developed.
.less self mediated immune damage)
.But more self mediate immunity system damage (in adult case)*Hepatitis -B:-
.90% chance chronicity.
.5-10% chance.
. immune system less developed.
.slow and long term infection.
.long term chronic infections.
.not properly recovery liver.VaccinesThe use of vaccines is an important key to preventing hepatitis. Vaccinations are available to prevent the development of hepatitis A and B. Experts are currently developing vaccines against hepatitis C.Complications of hepatitisChronic hepatitis B or C can often lead to more serious health problems. Because the virus affects the liver, people with chronic hepatitis B or C are at risk for:chronic liver diseasecirrhosisliver cancerWhen your liver stops functioning normally, liver failure can occur. Complications of liver failure include:bleeding disordersa buildup of fluid in your abdomen, known as ascitesincreased blood pressure in portal veins that enter your liver, known as portal hypertensionkidney failurehepatic encephalopathy, which can involve fatigue, memory loss, and diminished mental abilities due to the buildup of toxins, like ammonia, that affect brain functionhepatocellular carcinoma, which is a form of liver cancerdeathTypes:-
.viral hepatitis (commons)
. alcoholic hepatitis
.Toxic hepatitis (drus , alcohol, medicine include)
.auto immuno hepatitis
(Types of te virus-age of the patient, health of the patient, status of immune system)(Viral hepatitis).
1. Hepatitis A
2. Hepatitis B
3. Hepatitis C
4. Hepatitis D
5. Hepatitis E* Faeco-oral (entral)
Infected person
⬇️(Excretes virus infaeces)
Infects water or food
New infected person
*Parental routes
. subcutaneous
. intravenous
. intramuscular





TOPIC =Hepatitis

πŸ‘‰πŸ» It is Inflammation of Liver.

πŸ‘‰πŸ» World Hepatitis Day – 28 July

Incubation Period

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Hepatitis A – 15-60 Day
πŸ‘‰πŸ»Hepatitis B – 45-180 Day
πŸ‘‰πŸ»Hepatitis C -15-160 Day
πŸ‘‰πŸ»Hepatitis D -30-180 Day
πŸ‘‰πŸ» Hepatitis E -10-60 Day


πŸ‘‰πŸ»Hepatitis A

  • Feco oral Route (MC)
    -Sexual Contact and Parentral (Less Common )

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Hepatitis B

  • Sexual Contact
  • Perinatal

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Hepatitis C – Percutennous (MC)
-Parentral (BT)

πŸ‘‰ Hepatitis -D

  • Sexual Contact
  • Parinatal
  • Parentral

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Hepatitis -E

  • Feco oral Route

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis is Known as Infectious Hep. – Hep. A

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Which Hepatitis is Known as Epidemic Jaundice – Hep. A

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Which Hepatitis known as Serum Hepatitis – Hep. B

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Which Hepatitis known as Percutenous Hepatitis – Hepatitis C

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Which Hepatitis Known as Post Transfusional Hepatitis – Hep. C

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis is Most Risky and Danger – Hepatitis C

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Which Hepatitis is the Most Fatal Hepatitis Hepatitis – C

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis known as Depedent Hepatitis – Hep. D

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis known as Subviral Satellite – Hepatitis D

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis caused by DNA Virus – Hep. B ( All other Caused by RNA Virus )

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Which of The Epidemiological Marker of Hepatitis B – HBsAg. (Hepatitis B Surface Antigen )

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis Most common in Hospital Settings /Clinical area – Hep. B

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis Most Common in Children in India – Hepatitis A

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis Most Common in India – Hep. E

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis can’t be treated by Vaccine – Hepatitis C, Hepatitis E

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis Does not involved Liver Function so much Hep. E

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis Can’t be Converted into Chronic Hepatitis – Hepatitis E and Hep . A

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis is Most fulminant during Pregnancy – Hep. E

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Most Common complain of Hepatitis – Cirrhosis of Liver (MC)

  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Gastric Varices

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Which Hepatitis never Revert back in life – Hep.A and Hep. B

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Frist complain by the Hepatitis patients – Anorexia

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Frist Cardinal sign of Hepatitis – Yellowish of body skin specially Sclera

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Urine Color in Hepatitis – Dark Amber color

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Stool color in Hepatitis – Clay colored Stool

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Frist Antigen appear in Serum in Hepatitis – HBsAg (Known as Australia Antigen )

πŸ‘‰πŸ»Indicater of Active Viral Replication -HBeAg (Hepatitis B envelope Antigen )

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Frist Antibodies Doe’s not appear in Serum – HBcAg (Hepatitis B Core Antigen )

πŸ‘‰πŸ»The Antibody indicate stoppage of Viral Replication – HBeAg (Hepatitis B envelope Antigen )

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Last Antibody to appears in Serum – HBsAg

πŸ‘‰πŸ» The Indicater indicate end of Infection or Recovery – H


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