▪ Drowning means submersion in water leading to
death within 24 hours.
▪ Near drowning means when the child manages to
survive after successful resuciation for 24 hours
following submersion in water, no matter whether
he/she dies or survive later.
▪ If the child dies later, the term near drowning with
delayed death is used.

▪ Accidental
▪ Infants drown when left unattended.
▪ Adolescents drown durning swimming because they
overestimate themselves.


▪ Aspiration
▪ Hypoxemia
▪ Respiratory obstruction
▪ Asphyxia
▪ Hemoconcentration
▪ Hypovolemia/Hypervolemia
▪ Pulmonary edema and hyperkalemia
▪ Atelectasis

Patients with near drowning can be grouped into three categories depending upon their severity of illness. :-

1. The patients may be conscious and awake, they are
grouped as category A.
2. The vitims of category B may found with respiratory
distress, cynosis, stupor and hypothermia.
3. The victims of category C patients are comatosed
with apnea and respiratory failure.


▪ Intitial resuscitation should be done with basic life
support measures( mouth- mouth breathing, closed
cardiac massage)
▪ Category A & B require supportive care.
▪ Category C patients require advance life support

▪ Oxygen therapy, diuretics, sodium bicarbonate and
bronchodilators can be administered.
▪ Hypothermia should be managed by adequate
▪ Health education about the prevention of drowning or
near drowning is important nursing responsibility.


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