- Centromere: A constriction point known as centrosome divides the chromosome into two halves or arms. The short arm of a chromosome is known as ‘p’ arm, whereas the long arm is known as ‘q’ arm.
- Chromatid: When a cell division occurs, the centromere divides the chromosome into two halves. Each half of the chromosome joined is known as a chromatid.
- Chromatin: A chromatin is a complex mixture of DNA, RNA and protein that forms a chromosome inside the nuclei of eukaryotic cells.
- Telomere: It is a terminal part of a chromosome which restricts fusion of a chromosomal segment.
- Secondary Constrictions: They are present within a chromosome comprising of genes to congure nucleoli called as a nucleolar organiser
- Chromomeres: They appear in beads available on the Chromonema, and they get arranged row-wise along with a length of it.
- Matrix: Chromosomes contain a membrane called pellicle around it. Matrix is a substance having a jelly-like appearance within the pellicle, comprising of non-genetic materials.
- Chromonema: A chromosome thread that is relatively uncoiled at early prophase but assumes a spiral form at metaphase.