ANATOMICAL_POSITIONS

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ANATOMICAL_POSITIONS

ANATOMY
the scientific study of the structure of an organism and the relationships of its different parts

PHYSIOLOGY
the scientific study of the functions of living organisms and their parts

PATHOLOGY
the scientific study of disease (e.g. infection or cancer)

DISEASE
abnormalities of the body structure or function that prevents the body from being stable and alive

LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
chemical-cellular-tissues-organ-system-organism

ANATOMICAL POSITION
the standard reference position of a body-a standing posture with arms at the sides and the palms, head, and feet forward

SUPINE POSITION
when the body is lying face upward

PRONE POSITION
when the body is lying face downward

SUPERIOR
Toward the head end or upper part of a organism or the body; above

INFERIOR
Toward the feet or lower part of an organism or body; below

ANTERIOR
front or ventral of a body

POSTERIORI
back or dorsal of a body

MEDIAL
situated near the median plane of the body or the midline of an organ. The opposite of lateral

LATERAL
situated on one side or other of the body or of an organ, esp. in the region furthest from the median plane. The opposite of medial

PROXIMAL
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

DISTAL
directed away from the midline or mesial plane of the body

SAGITTAL PLANE
vertical division of the body into right and left portions

TRANSVERSE PLANE
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts

FRONTAL PLANE
a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

SUPERFICIAL
on or near the surface; concerned with or understanding only what is on the surface, shallow

DEEP
away from the body surface; more internal

VENTRAL
toward or on or near the belly (front of a primate or lower surface of a lower animal)

DORSAL
belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part

THORACIC CAVITY
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart

ABDOMINAL CAVITY
space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen

PELVIC CAVITY
Contains the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs, and the last part of the large intestine.

ABDOMINOPEVIC CAVITY
contains both the abdominal and pelvic cavities

CERVICAL
of or relating to the cervix of the uterus

CUTANEOUS
relating to or existing on or affecting the skin

GLUTEN
of or relating to or near the gluteus muscles

OCCIPITAL
posterior surface of head

POPLITEAL
back of knee

CRANIAL
skull

DIGITALl
fingers, toes

INGUINAL
Area where thigh meets body trunk; groin

PALMAR
palm of the hand

TARSAL
ankle

ATROPHY
a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse

CRURAL
of or relating the leg from the knee to the foot

FACIAL
face

LUMBAR
of or relating to or near the part of the back between the ribs and the hipbones

PEDAL
of or relating to the feet

TEMPORAL
of or relating to the temples (the sides of the skull behind the orbit)

ANTEBRACHIAL
forearm

ANTECUBITAL
of or relating to the region of the arm in front of the elbow

BRACHIAL
of or relating to an arm

CARPAL
any of the eight small bones of the wrist

CEPHALIC
of or relating to the head

CUBITAL
of or relating to the elbow

FEMORAL
of or relating to or near the femur or thigh

MAMMARY
of or relating to the milk-giving gland of the female

PLANTAR
relating to or occurring on the undersurface of the foot; sole of foot

UMBILICAL
relating to or resembling the umbilicus; navel

HOMEOSTASIS
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
feedback in opposite phase with (decreasing) the input

POSITIVE FEEDBACK
feedback in phase with (augmenting) the input

ATROPHY
a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse

HYPERTROPHY
abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ

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